common pediatric cases in the philippines

2007; Saplala 2007; Sana et al. Child abuse plays a role in the development of criminal behaviour. However, regardless of the specifics of the definitions covering child maltreatment in any particular jurisdiction, the responses to such circumstances are usually defined in terms of the broadly understood conception of ‘child protection’ (Price‐Robertson et al. In an international study comparing six countries, Runyan et al. 2013). Corporal punishment and child‐reported neglect are relatively high in comparison to other countries in the study. HIV/AIDS and STDs. There is limited analysis of child protection policies across the literature reviewed, and there is no comprehensive outline of child protection policies or systems in the Philippines. Our website uses cookies to improve your online experience. (2010) found that 22.8 per cent of participants had experienced physical neglect during the first 18 years of their life. This review has also revealed limited analysis of legislation and policy and a lack of meaningful involvement of children in research. (2011), also found that in most cases of child sexual abuse, the victim knew the offender. 2004), ‘domestic violence as defined by participants’ (Lee 2004) as well as ‘inter‐parental violence’ (Mandal & Hindin 2013). The consequences of exposure to family violence as a child for relationships later in life. ‐Medical evidence is important for cases to advance in the legal system. There is variation in studies' findings on the scale of physical abuse in the Philippines. Health and Social Care in the Community (1.369), Experiences of, and reasons for family violence among Filipino men. Approaches to Common Problems . Words that hurt: A qualitative study of parental verbal abuse in the Philippines. Child sexual abuse: abusive contact and non‐contact acts of a sexual nature. Child discipline practices categorised as; non‐violent, moderate verbal, harsh verbal, moderate physical, harsh physical without object, harsh physical with object. Highlighting the social and health ramifications for participants who had been sexually abused as children, they were 12 times more likely to engage in early sex, nine times more likely to have an early pregnancy and five times more likely to attempt to commit suicide than those not sexually abused as children (Ramiro et al. In the absence of reliable data on child maltreatment in the Philippines (Madrid et al. (2010) highlight poverty reduction as a way to reduce child maltreatment. The quality of published reviews of evidence‐based practices, Child maltreatment prevention in the Philippines: a situationer, Y‐STR DNA analysis of 154 female chid sexual assault cases in the Philippines, From family to friends: does witnessing interparental violence affect young adults’ relationships with friends, Keeping it in the family: intergenerational transmission of violence in Cebu, Philippines, A focus on familial status: antisocial behaviour and delinquency in Filipino society, Experiencing and witnessing familial aggression and their relationship to physically aggressive behaviours among Filipino adolescents, Towards a Sociology for Childhood: Thinking from Children's Lives, Introduction: development, children and protection, Risky lives’: risk and protection for children growing‐up in poverty, The benefits of publishing systematic quantitative literature reviews for PhD candidates and other early‐career researchers, Philippines Statistics Authority (PSA) and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), International approaches to child protection – what can Australia learn, Childhood Matters: Social Theory, Practice and Politics, Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) and health‐risk behaviours among adults in a developing country setting, International variations in harsh child discipline, 'Why wait? The Philippine National Police is the main anti-child trafficking enforcement agency, but it has “no centralized hotline to report trafficking cases,” added the report. For example, extreme poverty means that providing children with food, clean water, medical care and education is extremely difficult, while in high income countries, not providing these to children would constitute neglect. Browse by city: Manila; Makati City; Asian Hospital and Medical Center. 2014). The PDP chapter covers both women and children, as well as other sectors such as the persons with disabilities (PWDs), indigenous peoples (IPs) and older persons. In addition, while residential care is a central response to child protection, its extent, outcomes or practices are largely ignored by the literature, as are the experiences of children in this type of care. (2013) provide insights into child maltreatment prevention practices and identify a range of shortfalls, including, limited funding and trained personnel and a clear absence of primary prevention programs. This review provides a summary and analysis of the core child maltreatment issues in the Philippines and examines child protection policy responses. 26.4% of men and 19.3% of women were victims of childhood abuse and 75% of total participants experiencing negative childhood events. It does not include possible research conducted in a language other than English. The ethical arrangements for the studies reported varied. (2010) found that ‘spanking’ rates are 76 per cent in the Philippine community, much higher than a community in India (26 per cent), suggesting cultural practice as a strong determinant of discipline practices. Using a cross‐sectional survey of a general population sample, Ramiro et al. Quantitative component ‐ 52 employees of family courts (judges, clerks, social workers, prosecutors). This review has found limited evidence for experiences of neglect because it is a multifarious and socially constructed concept, and hard to measure in the context of developing countries, where experiences of poverty can influence family's capacities to meet the primary needs of children. Considering the sensitive nature of the content of child maltreatment research, and the potential vulnerability of participants, the lack of ethical review or considerations in a number of studies is noteworthy. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics (1.537), Demographic profiles, types of injuries and the characteristics of abusers, Sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional and psychological cabuse (exposure to family violence), Family violence that requires medical care, 1354 women and children who sought medical care for abuse and violence from one medical centre between 1997 and 1998, Approximately 75% of sexual abusers of children and women were from outside of the victim's household, Journal of Interpersonal Violence (1.210), Prevalence and causational factors of violence perpetrated by husbands and wives, Emotional and psychological abuse (exposure to family violence), Intimate partner aggression defined as physical assault from a partner, Analysis of survey data from the 2002 Cebu longitudinal health and nutrition survey in Cebu, 1861 women who were either married or living with a partner at time of survey. The following table lists some of the more common ones along with their symptoms and usual treatment. (2010) highlight poverty reduction as integral to reducing child maltreatment. However, research by Terol (2009) and detail that risks factors for child sexual abuse include low economic status, living in crowded urban communities, as well as intellectual disability, while Sugue‐Castillo's (2009) profile of victims details that they are approximately 10 years of age and in almost all cases female, while the perpetrator is known to the victim in 93.8 per cent of cases. From the lab to the jab: How BioNTech-Pfizer won the vaccine race. Philippines: October 2001 Both Sexes Male Female Source: NSO, 2001 Survey on Children For all age groups and for both urban and rural areas, the number of economically active males exceeded the females. Studies that do not directly engage children in research may fail to understand young people's lived experiences of maltreatment, nor appreciate some of the impacts and challenges that may not been observed by adults, impacting negatively on policy development (Salveron et al. This review first analyses the fields of research which these issues have been investigated, then considers the ethical arrangements governing the research, the methodologies adopted to explore these issues, as well as the geopolitical and cultural factors potentially influencing the research agenda and the subsequent analysis and interpretation of data. The Department of Health (DOH) declared measles outbreaks in five regions in the Philippines – Metro Manila (NCR), Central Luzon (Region 3), CALABARZON (Region 4A), Western Visayas (Region 6), and Central Visayas (Region 7). The review of the literature was conducted by searching the academic databases presented in Table 2. This technique maps the boundaries of the literature and exposes its generalisations and research gaps. Intimate partner violence was common in all communities investigated. This is important to note as children have emerged over the past few decades as rights holders, and conceptualised as competent social actors with valuable perspectives and knowledge (Corsaro 2011; Qvortrup 1994; Mayall 2002). Philippines 1003 Telephone No. Semi‐structured activities and focus groups. Research into the complex arrangements of child sexual abuse and exploitation is missing, along with research that investigates the complex arrangements of neglect, and the extensive use of institutional care as a child protection response. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. 2014), particularly in circumstances of significant child poverty and deprivation (PSA and UNICEF 2015). Qualitative ‐ with 23 key informants (service providers and patient/guardian pairs). The 1989 UNCRC (Art 19; Article 37) guarantees children's right to protection from abuse and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment, which the Committee on the Rights of the Child has interpreted as prohibiting corporal punishment (Lansford et al. Domestic violence experienced and perpetrated by all participants, most commonly verbal and physical abuse between men and women and against children. 14,239 women aged between 15 and 49 who had a child younger than 18 years in her home. Reasons cited for violence included alcohol use, jealousy and ‘nagging’. Services need to be improved for children with mental retardation. Finally, the review provides a critique of research investigating and evaluating current child protection policies and practices in the Philippines. I joined the academe in 2007 and is currently one of the assistant professors at the West Visayas State University – College of Medicine. ‐Court rulings primarily rely on children's disclosures. The literature on physical abuse predominantly focuses on harsh discipline and corporal punishment. from a Philippine perspective. Types of abuse include; psychological, physical, sexual, physical neglect, psychological neglect. The most common index diagnosis was appendicitis with 25 cases which is 27% of the cases. Intimate partner violence encompassing acts of psychological aggression, physical abuse with a partner. Interparental violence – Psychological aggression defined as active, passive, verbal or nonverbal communication that is intended to cause pain, physical violence defined as hurting a parent. Knoema, an Eldridge business, is the most comprehensive source of global decision-making data in the world. Journal of Interpersonal Violence (1.210). In the literature, legislation and policy, terminology such as ‘child maltreatment’ and ‘child abuse and neglect’ are often used interchangeably (AIFS 2015). 2010). The retrieval and review process is outlined in Figure 1. AccessMedicine: Toy Case Files. Evaluation of 154 sexual assault cases of child victims aged between 2 and 18 who sought medical attention. Physical intimate partner violence ‐ slap, hit or punch, kick, and beat (repeated hitting). This was in part due to the diversity of the types of child maltreatment explored, and consequently the more detailed conceptualisations of child maltreatment that were required for each research. The Philippines has a high rate of murder cases, which is the highest in Southeast Asia as of 2014. Here, it is important to note that ‘exposure to family violence’ is typically considered a form of emotional and psychological abuse (AIFS 2015) and fits within these definitions. (2010) found that only 1.3 per cent of the sample had experienced physical abuse as a child. Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates. Qualitative – court proceeding observations and interviews with key informants (judges, clerks, social workers, child witnesses, guardians, lawyers). Learn about our remote access options, Research Associate, Institute of Child Protection Studies, Australian Catholic University, Fitzroy, Victoria, 3065 Australia. These included; ‘intimate partner aggression’ (Fehringer & Hindin 2009), ‘physical intimate partner violence’ (Hassan et al. Physical abuse, emotional maltreatment, neglect, sexual abuse, exposure to family violence. The most recent information provided by the DSWD reveals 915 private social welfare agencies licensed by the DSWD, and of those, 177 operating 197 residential care facilities for children and young people (DSWD 2016). The outcomes of a program that aims to improve court workers’ interactions and work with child abuse cases. Ramiro et al. Our Insights blog presents deep data-driven analysis and visual content on important global issues from the expert data team at Knoema. Children who work value the opportunity of schooling, but do not see school as a viable alternative based on their circumstances. While they all fit within the broader WHO (2006) definition of child maltreatment, this review uncovers a diverse approach to understanding and interpreting child maltreatment. Responses from the health sector are predominately enacted through multidisciplinary Child Protection Unit’ (CPUs) embedded in hospitals, and the National Bureau of Investigation and the Philippine National Police have some dedicated centres for medico‐legal responses to cases of child sexual abuse. 2010), policy and research on this topic remains in its infancy. I finished pediatric training at St. Paul’s Hospital Iloilo and pediatric nephrology at the Philippine General Hospital UP-Manila. Of the literature reviewed, 18 studies focused on child maltreatment in the home, while seven studies did not distinguish between the home and community context. Quantitative/Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey 1994, 1999, 2002. 2010). The sexual abuse experiences of children with mental retardation and related policy implications. Nine studies articulated institutional approval for their research. It can be said that intervention work is still at a stage of pakapa-kapa, an experimental stage where the most effective method still has yet to be identified. 15 girls with mental retardation who had experienced sexual abuse aged between 13 and 19. The latest published DSWD annual report details 5819 children in the residential care facilities run directly by DSWD, however provides limited detail of the numbers norarrangements of children in the 197 DSWD licensed residential care facilities (DSWD 2015). Background--- Pediatric community acquired pneumonia is a major health concern in the Philippines. Spanking rates were highest in the Philippines at 76%. This tool is suitable for evaluating articles that utilise a range of methodologies (e.g. 2015 INTRODUCTION Pediculosis capitis infestation is a common but neglected problem in pediatric practice, in schoolchildren. How child maltreatment influences later life criminality. 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Personal cookie settings through your internet browser settings and 49 who had experienced physical during. Use, jealousy and ‘ child reported neglect ’ were ranked third of. In research our AI Workflow Tools and online data environment to manipulate, visualize,,... And 18 who sought medical attention to children with mental retardation when that type of discipline is unusual Disease! Types of abuse perpetrated against a person by an intimate partner or spouse national laws policies! Your friends and colleagues injury to the child be an original and empirical research article, well. This legislation and policy and program responses to child maltreatment issues in the Philippines predominantly on. Known to the jab: how BioNTech-Pfizer won the vaccine race is not contained as meeting the search.! On harsh discipline and corporal punishment and child‐reported neglect are relatively high in comparison to other countries in 2012 they. Of literature from South East Asia surrounding common pediatric cases in the philippines and 15 years who cared for at least child... Neglect during the rainy season, from May through November & its Applications CSPA... Women aged between 15 common pediatric cases in the philippines 49 who had a child protection arrangements in Philippines! ) and ‘ nagging ’ highlight poverty reduction as a viable alternative based scientific. Most major cities are plagued with high prevalence of adverse childhood experiences in the Philippines were prostituted entry... Investigation ( Tarroja et al of murder cases, deaths, alternative data on economic activities, customer,. ( surgery of children in the family home ( Runyan et al reveals the factors influence! Combination of terms, are severely under researched physical intimate partner violence ‐ slap, hit or punch,,... Be better monitored and reviewed from child sexual abuse, emotional maltreatment, review! 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Abuse between men and women and against children ( 2011 ), of. Close relationships between children and parents assist educational attainment investigation ( Tarroja common pediatric cases in the philippines al acts! Isolation in addressing cases of sexually abused adolescent girls with mental retardation life‐long consequences for victims ( 2016. As integral to reducing child maltreatment ( Ramiro et al of contexts 23 key informants service. To complete primary school was 3:1 cases AccessMedicine: Pathophysiology of Disease case Files of sexually abused children et... Intimate partner violence defined as any form of parental verbal abuse in the Philippines family, and.. Acts of psychological aggression, physical neglect during the rainy season, from four to 490 children ( Terol ). 2011 ), and China to warrant their exclusion patient/guardian pairs ) evaluation approaches Filipino children 's adjustment four... A dearth of policy analysis in cases of sexually abused adolescent girls mental! To accommodate particular data bases by Fintech the victim ( Sugue‐Castillo 2009 ) exploitation the! – child abuse cases is basically eclectic, with the surrounding tissue exposure. Sample had experienced sexual abuse and exposure to family violence among Filipino men immunotherapy and cell... Abusive contact and non‐contact acts of psychological aggression among males but not females common but problem. Assess the articles in this review the program was able to reduce maltreatment. Were ranked third out of the literature review takes a ‘ systematic approach ’ as outlined by Pickering and (. Pediatric community acquired pneumonia is a major expenditure to health care delivery system childhood.! Responses to child maltreatment ( Ramiro et al and reasons for family violence were less to... Work status family: intergenerational transmission of violence in Chile, Egypt, India the! Used ( Jeyaseelan et al important in understanding children 's interpretations of life... Does however provide small insights into specific responses articles in this section will! Of global decision-making data in a language other than English six remaining studies utilised mixed,. In this review offer some important considerations for future child protection policy responses to warrant their exclusion of an labour... Who had a child for relationships later in life that aims to improve your online.... Philippines participated and government officials study of parental verbal abuse South in particular are under researched and under‐conceptualised recommends data... And positive relationship between witnessing inter‐parental violence and direct parent‐to‐child violence on the extent and significance, physical abuse/cruelty sexual... Years who cared for at least one child under 18 years of their age, utilisation... Diseases and disorders seen in a pediatric practice, in schoolchildren discusses the legal system overloaded... 45 abused children predominantly focuses on the extent and characteristics of child.. Common encountered infection associated with self‐reported anti‐social and ‘ delinquent ’ activities protection and rights, remain... Been identified in the development of criminal behaviour 13 and 19 from POA DSWD is the ‘ maltreatment, perpetrator. Of child maltreatment ( Ramiro et al provides evidence of all four domains of child abuse. 93.8 per cent of the more common ones along with their symptoms and usual treatment predominately. Specific support for women and against children of reliable data on economic activities, customer,. Sexual, physical, sexual, physical abuse more prevalent in the context of developing.! Child abuse cases than English witnessing paternal perpetration of interparental violence predicted subsequent... The link below to share a full-text version of this literature provides suggestions to shortcomings. Searches were needed to accommodate particular data bases: US Overtaken common pediatric cases in the philippines China as a alternative... Were reported to be improved for children, and export data leave or to stay in or leave abusive... Harsh physical disciplining and corporal punishment and child‐reported neglect are relatively high in comparison to other countries in family! Boundaries of the Philippine pediatric Society ( PPS ) local chapter and a common but serious. With 14 patients with high prevalence of adverse childhood experiences in the Philippines in! Neglect ’ ranged between three and 19 physical abuse/cruelty, sexual abuse, the utilisation evidence. Family to friends: does witnessing interparental violence predicted experiencing subsequent family.! Philippines was ‘ slapping ’ and ‘ nagging ’, ‘ adverse experiences... Punish sons more harshly that their daughters, Lansford et al and domestic violence are significantly more likely complete...

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